MC68HC11 Implementation of IEEE-488 Interface DSP56000
This application note describes the implementation of an IEEE-488 (GPIB) interface to the Motorola DSP56000 Digital Signal Processor using an MC68HC11 single chip MCU. The original purpose of this interface was to permit the development of DSP56000 software and hardware on a Hewlett Packard HP9836 engineering workstation, which is furnished as standard with Hewlett Packard's implementation of the IEEE-488 interface, called the HPIB. In addition, the software was designed to permit GPIB access to the MCU's Serial Communications Interface(SCI).
MC68HC11 EEPROM Error Correction Algorithms
This application note describes a technique for correcting one bit errors, and detecting two bit errors, in a block of date ranging from 1 to 11 bits in length. The technique applied is a modified version of a Hamming code, and has been implemented entirely in C. Additional functions have been provided to program and read the EEPROM on an MC68HC11 microcontroller unit using the error encoding and decoding algorithms.
128K byte addressing with the
The maximum direct addressing capability of the M68HC11 device is 64K bytes, but this can be insufficient for some applications. This application note describes two methods of memory paging that allow the MCU to fully address a single 1 megabit EPROM (128K bytes) by manipulation of the address lines. The two methods illustrate the concept of paging and the inherent compromises. The technique may be expanded to allow addressing of several EPROM, RAM or EEPROM memories or several smaller memories by using both address lines and chip enables.
An Introduction to the HC16 for HC11
This application note discusses the various differences likely to be encountered by a user of the HC16 who is experienced in using the HC11. It covers the CPU architecture, software compatibility and hardware of the HC16 device.
An HC11-controlled Multiband RDS
This application note describes the software and hardware features of the microcontroller of a synthesised multiband radio which includes RDS decoding (FM, band II). It uses an MC68HC(7)11 microproccessor whose program can be on-chip or contained in an external EPROM. ROMed versions are available. Both LCD and VFD 16-character dot-matrix display modules can be used to display RDS and tuning information. Traffic messages, initiated by the reception of EON data (group 14B) or TA=TP=1 on the current frequency, are handled. The station carrying the TA is tuned for the duration of the message, followed by a return to the original frequency. A tuning knob employing an incremental encoder is supported.
RDS decoding for an HC11-controlled
This application note describes, and lists the software of, the RDS aspects of the HC11 radio controller described in AN494/D. The complete application constitutes a synthesised multiband radio which includes RDS decoding (FM, band II) and uses an MC68HC(7)11 microproccessor whose program can be on-chip or contained in an external EPROM. Both LCD and VFD 16-character dot-matrix display modules can be used to display RDS and tuning information. Traffic messages on the current frequency or on another frequency, initiated by the reception of RDS EON data, are handled. The station carrying the TA is tuned for the duration of the message, followed by a return to the original frequency.
While most applications can be implemented by using the 16-bit integer precision fo the MC68HC11, certain application or algorithms may be difficult or impossible to implement without floating-point math. The goal in writing the MC68HC11 floating-point package was to provide a fast, flexible way to do floating-point math for just such applications. This application note describes the floating-point package and how to use this package.
CONFIG Register Issues Concerning the
Some customers and field representatives have expressed concerns about the reliability of the CONFIG register in the M8HC11 Family of MCUs. These fears are based on problems with early mask sets of the part; however, current production units and proper application of the parts have overcome these earlier problems. The earlier fault mechanisms, the circuit changes to correct them, and application guidelines to prevent undesirable results are presented in this application note.
MC68HC11 EEPROM Programming from a
This application note deshribes a simple and reliable method of programming either the MC68HC11's internal EEPROM, or EEPROM connected to the MCU's external bus. The date to be programmed is downloaded from any standard personal computer (PC) fitted with a serial communications port. In addition to the programming procedure, the software incorporates the facility to verify the contents of the MCU's internal or external memory against code held in a PC disc. Both program and verify options use data supplied in S record format, which is downloaded from the PC to the MC68HC11 using the RS232 protocol supported by the MCU's SCI port.
Software Files for AN1010 zipped
Designing for Electromagnetic
Compatibility (EMC) with HCMOS Microcontrollers
The operating speed of present high-density complementary metal oxide semiconductor (HCMOS) devices is approaching that of the fastest bipolar logic families of only a few years ago. Associated with this increase in performance ar some new design challenges for the microcontroller unit (MCU)-based system designer. This application note addresses one of these issues, the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) of the finished product.
EMC may be considered from either an emission or a susceptibility point of view. Although the following discussion relates primarily to emission control (in particular, radiated emission), most techniques to limit emission also reduce susceptibility. Furthermore, minimizing electromagnetic interference (EMI) will reduce overall system noise, the benefits of which are higher digital noise immunity and accurate operation of local analog subsystems (for example, better design margin and a more reliable end product).
Reducing A/D Errors in Microcontroller
To resolve ADC performance issues, it is necessaryto understand a little about the nature of the MCU and the various areas of susceptibility of several ADC types. Although much information presented in this application note assumes that the ADC is resident on-chip with the CPU, other converter types not typically found on-chip with MCUs are discussed for those instances in which a multichip combination is encountered.
MC68HC11 Bootstrap Mode
This application note explains the operation and application of the M68HC11 bootstrap mode. Although the basic concepts associated with this mode are quite simple, the more subtle implications of these functions require careful consideration. Useful applications of this mode are overlooked due to an incomplete understanding of the bootstrap mode. Also, common problems associated with the bootstrap mode could be avoided by a more complete understanding of its operation and implications.
Software Files for AN1060 zipped
Use of Stack Simplifies M68HC11
The goal of this appplication note is to help the assembly language programmer understand the following topics: 1) the basic operation of the M68HC11 stack, 2) the concept of local and global variables, 3) subroutine parameter passing, and 4) use of the M68HC11 instruction set to support local variables and parameter passing.
Pulse Generation and Detection
with Microcontroller Units
This application note examines two common interfaces between microcontroller units (MCUs) and external circuitry - pulse generation and puls detection. Several families of Motorola MCUs and a variety of puls applications are considered. Code segments and listings are also included.
System Design and Layout Techniques
for Noise Reduction in MCU-Based Systems
As the high technology field advances, so do the problems from electromagnetic interference (EMI). EMI issues are increasingly problematic for the system designer as semiconductors in general become faster, more integrated, and, unfortunately, noisier. Engineers who design layouts with little regard for EMI issues are finding that their designs are not performing to specification or are not working at all. However, most EMI issues can be avoided in advance by using an appropriate system design approach coupled with proper printed circuit board (PCB) layout techniques.
Although the information provided here is not a cure-all for every EMI problem, this application note focuses on utilizing proven layout techniques to control EMI on MCU-based mixed-signal svstems. It provides a practical approach rather than a theoretical discussion
Designing for Electromagnetic
Compatibility with Single-Chip Microcontrollers
This application note discusses how to design a single-chip microcontroller application considering electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). Today almost every consumer, automotive, and industrial application has a microcontroller (MCU) inside. More often than not, it will be a low-cost, single-chip MCU. Single-chip MCUs are ideal because of the flexibility and functionality incorporated on one piece of silicon. Typical MCUs have their own CPU, RAM, ROM, and input/output (I/O) ports and can have customized functions such as analog/digital modules, LCD drivers, on-screen display for television applications, dual-tone multifrequency (DTMF) generators for telephones, AC motor drive circuits, and EEPROM for non-volatile data storage.
As MCU functionality increases becoming more complex and with market costs being driven lower, MCU producers must reduce their manufacturing costs continually. Reducing the geometries of the on-chip transistors and gates achieves this, and also helps produce MCUs capable of functioning at higher operating frequencies.
Transporting M68HC11 Code to M68HC12
In general, the CPU12 is a proper superset of the M68HC11 CPU. Significant changes have been made to improve the efficiency and capabilities of the CPU without sacrificing compatibility with the popular M68HC11 family. This note provides information that will allow the large number of programmers familiar with the M68HC11 to evaluate moving from an M68HC11 system to an M68HC12 system. For more detailed information, please refer to the CPU12 Reference Manual, Motorola Publication Number CPU12RM/AD.
Stepper Motor Control with an MC68HC11E9
This note provides basic implementation details and procedural information to design and assemble a stepper motor system. The controller discussed here is the MC68HC11E9, an 8-bit Motorola microcontroller (MCU). There are many embedded control applications supported by the M68HC11 Family. The note consists of a general description and gives highlights of implementing a basic stepper motor system application. A step-by-step hardware assembly section is included to promote ease of construction should one desire to build a similar system.
Noise Reduction Techniques for
With todays advancements in semiconductor technology and the push toward faster microcontroller units (MCUs) and peripherals, new product designs are faced with an increasing threat from electromagnetic interference (EMI).
Earlier, the issue of emission and interference was referred to as EMI or RFI (for radio frequency interference). It is now referred to in more positive terms by replacing "interference" with "compatability." Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) encompasses both emission and susceptibility for a given system. Although this application note focuses primarily on emission, some of the guidelines presented throughout this document will affect susceptibility as well.
EMI can, and often does, cause delays in the product development schedule. Early and continuous attention to the effects of EMC/EMI will give the product the best possible chance for minimum cost and schedule delays, while lack of attention in this area will almost certainly translate to added cost and schedule delay.
Microcontroller Oscillator Circuit
The heartbeat of every microcontroller design is the oscillator circuit. Most designs that demand precise timing over a wide temperature range use a crystal oscillator. PCB designers have the task of integrating crystal and microcontroller functions without the help of mating specifications. The objective of this document is to develop a systematic approach to good oscillator design and to point out some common pitfalls.
Resetting Microcontrollers During
A simple function such as resetting an MCU during the application or removal of power can cause many problems if not handled properly. Symptoms of improperly handled reset during power transitions can range from a slight delay in MCU-response after power-up to very erratic, inconsistent behaviour to total system failure.This document covers the main issues related to this problem and aims to lead the user to a safe and reliable approach to transitioning power in their application.
Data Structures for 8-Bit
A data structure describes how information is organized and stored in a computer system. Although data structures are usually presented in the context of large computers, the same principles can be applied to embedded 8-bit processors. The efficient use of appropriate data structures can improve both the dynamic (time-based) and static (storage-based) performance of microcontroller software.
This application note presents data structures which are useful in the development of microcontroller software. The applications presented here are by no means absolute. One can find an infinite variety of ways to apply these basic data structures in a microcontroller application.
Implementing a FLASH Memory System
in an MC68HC711E9 Design
This application note describes a single board computer (SBC) design which uses a FLASH device as its main program/data storage media. The emphasis is on the hardware and firmware techniques used to implement the FLASH programming system as well as its impact on firmware development. Also, an example of a retrofit design is included to illustrate how these techniques are modified to convert an existing EPROM-based design to FLASH.
Precision Sine-Wave Tone Synthesis
Using 8-Bit MCUs
This application note presents basic tone synthesis techniques and illustrates their implementation using the HC08, HC05, HC11, and HC12 Families of MCUs.
Expanding Digital Input with an A/D
This application note documents a method of extending digital input using the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) of a microcontroller unit (MCU).
Many MCU applications require digital input and arbitration. For example, determining which key of a keypad was pressed. This is commonly done by arranging switches in a matrix configuration, connecting to a series of digital input pins, and reading a digital input data register to determine which key was pressed. While this method is easily implemented, it does require the use of an MCUs parallel port pins.
Some applications require all available bidirectional or input-only pins for other purposes. In such a case, an alternate method of arbitrating keypresses is desired. By using the ADC of an MCU connected to a resistor ladder, user input can be more efficiently processed.
Determining MCU Oscillator Start-up
Many microcontrollers (MCUs) incorporate an inverting amplifier for use with an external crystal or ceramic resonator in a Pierce oscillator configuration. This paper describes how to calculate the minimum gain (transconductance) of the amplifier required to ensure oscillation with specific external components, and also how to measure the amplifier transconductance to establish whether the minimum gain requirement is met.
Local Interconnect Network (LIN)
This application note describes a LIN demo that was designed for the SAE show in March 2000. The project was intended to demonstrate the LIN protocol, tools and Motorola products that were available. Although the demo is purely visual and does not represent any particular application, it does introduce many features that would be implemented in actual applications, such as CAN-LIN gateway, sleep mode, messaging scheme, LIN drivers and LIN tools. The hardware was designed to be flexible and can easily be configured to drive many real applications.
An introduction to the LIN protocol and general description of the demo is presented first, followed by a detailed description of the hardware and software, including schematics and flow diagrams. All code listings are included in the Appendix.
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The Motorola 8/16-Bit Family of MCUs
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Embedded Flash: Changing the
Technology World for the Better
Motorola is the first embedded technology company to develop, manufacture and ship large volumes of low-cost FLASH MCUs. Motorola has offered more than 40 different FLASH-based processors with memories ranging from 1 Kbyte in our HC08 family to 256 Kbytes in our HCS12 family.
M68HC11E Family Technical Data
M68HC11K Family Technical Data
MC68HC11D3 Technical Data
MC68HC11F1 Technical Data
MC68HC11F1 8-Bit Microcontroller
MC68HC11KW1 Technical Data
MC68HC(7)11P2 Technical Data
MC68HC711D3 Technical Data
MC68L11D3 Low Voltage Devices Supp.
to Technical Data
How the ROMON Bit Behaves on the E Series HC11
The functionality and differences in the functionality of the ROMON bit in the HC711E9 and HC711E20 microcontrollers (MCU) are discussed in this engineering bulletin. Although all 68HC11 Family parts are designed with full code compatibility in mind, bits may vary slightly due to customer-specific requirements in the CONFIG register. As a rule of thumb, however, the configuration bits should be similar from series to series within the family, having only slight differences.
Enabling the Security Feature on the
MC68HC711E9 Devices with PCbug11 on the M68HC711E9PGMR
The PCbug11 software, needed along with the M68HC711EPGMR to program MC68HC711E9 devices, is available from the download section of the Microcontroller Worldwide Web site. In this document is described how to enable the Security Feature on the MC68HC711E9 device.
Simplify MC68HC711E9 EPROM Programming
with PCbug11 and the M68HC711EPGMR Board
The PCbug11 software, needed along with the M68HC711EPGMR to program MC68HC711E9 devices, is available from the download section of the Microcontroller Worldwide Web site. In this document is described how to program MC68HC711E9 EPROM.
Programming MC68HC711E9 Devices with
PCbug11 and the M68HC11EVB
The PCbug11 software, needed along with the M68HC11EVB to program MC68HC711E9 devices, is available from the download section of the Microcontroller Worldwide Web site. In this document is described how to program the MC68HC711E9 device.
Enabling the Security Feature on M68HC811E2
with PCbug11 on the M68HC711E9PGMR
The PCbug11 software, needed along with the M68HC711E9PGMR to program MC68HC811E2 devices, is available from the download section of the Microcontroller Worldwide Web site. In this document is described how to enable the Security Feature on the MC68HC811E2 device.
Programming MC68HC811E2 Devices with
PCbug11 and the M68HC711E9PGMR
The PCbug11 software, needed along with the M68HC11E9PGMR to program MC68HC811E2 devices, is available from the download section of the Microcontroller Worldwide Web site. In this document is described how to program the MC68HC811E2 device.
Programming EPROM and EEPROM on the
The M68HC11EVM is one of the most versatile development tools for the MC68HC11 A- and E-series microcontrollers. This engineering bulletin applies to EVM revision G boards using the EVMBug monitor version 3.0.The EVM also can be used to program the EEPROM and EPROM of these devices. The dual features of emulation and programming make the EVM a good choice for new product development.
A Quick PWM Tutorial for MC68HC11K,
KA, KW, P, and PH Series Microcontrollers
New additions to the family of peripherals available on MC68HC11 microcontrollers are pulse width modulation (PWM) timer channels that may be used to accurately generate square wave signals of varying periods and duty cycles.In this bulletin, the 8-bit PWM generation is covered first, and then the concepts presented are used to introduce 16-bit PWM generation. The section describing 16-bit operation also includes an example of simultaneous 8- and 16-bit operation which demonstrates the flexibility of the PWM timer channels.
Replacing 68HC11A Series MCUs with
68HC11E Series MCUs
This information is presented to users of the MC68HC11A Family (A8/A1/A0) microcontrollers (MCUs) who are considering converting to MC68HC11E Family MCUs (E9/E1/E0). The 68HC11E Family was designed to provide more ROM and RAM for 68HC11A users.
How to Configure the Reset Pin on the
The ideal way to control the reset pin on the MC68HC11 is with a low-voltage inhibit (LVI) circuit. However, many designers want to use an RC circuit, and they wonder why the MC68HC11 Reference ManualRev. 3 (Motorola document order number M68HC11RM/AD) specifically forbids use of an RC (resistance-capacitance) circuit to reset the MC68HC11. This engineering bulletin explains why a capacitor should never be connected to the reset pin and describes the correct configuration of reset.
Using Psuedo-Interrupt Vectors on the
The MC68HC11EVBU Universal Evaluation Board Users Manual, Motorola document order number MC68HC11EVBU/AD2, contains a printing error regarding the pseudo-interrupt vectors to be used when running the BUFFALO monitor.
Turn Off Your E Clock to Reduce Noise
Emission on the MC68HC11
Because of the expanding ROM, EPROM, and RAM available on newer members of the MC68HC11 family, many applications are now feasible in single-chip mode, thereby reducing the number of integrated circuits necessary to complete a control application. Many of the products which now contain MC68HC11's are also noise sensitive applications like digital pagers and cellular phones. This paper describes a feature on MC68HC11's which will reduce noise radiating from the application in addition to reducing the current drawn by the part.
Setting the Programming Voltage on
Modular Microcontrollers with FLASH EEPROM
The MC68F333 has two FLASH electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM) modules, a 16-Kbyte module and a 48-Kbyte module By programming the FLASH EEPROM base address registers, the user can place the 16-K array on any 16-K boundary and the 48-K array in the lower 48-K of any 64-K boundary. Either module can be configured to generate the initial program counter and stack pointer value on system reset.
C Macro Definitions for the
With more microcontroller users moving to high level languages like C, macro definition files like the one outlined in this document can speed software development efforts. The file reproduced in the following pages is available on the Freeware Data System.
C Macro Definitions for the
C Macro Definitions for the
C Macro Definitions for the
Programming MC68HC811E2 Devices with
PCbug11 and the M68HC11EVBU
The PCbug11 software, needed along with the M68HC11EVBU to program MC68HC811E2 devices, is available from the download section of the Microcontroller Worldwide Web site. In this document is described how to program the MC68HC811E2 device.
Initialization Considerations When
Moving from the BUFFALO Monitor to a Standalone MC68HC11
Analog-to-digital (A/D) convertor code written under the BUFFALO monitor oftentimes does not run on a standalone MC68HC11 because of a simple error. You must initialize the A/D convertor by writing a 1 to the A/D converter power-up bit (ADPU) in the option register.
Simplify MC68HC711E20 EPROM Programming
This engineering bulletin describes a way to program MC68HC711E20 parts using the M68HC711E9PGMR board, since the GLOADE9 software shipped with this board cannot be used to program MC68HC711E20 devices. The PCbug11 is needed along with the M68HC11EVB to program MC68HC711E9 devices.
How to Write to the 64-Cycle Time-Protected
Registers on M68HC11 Development Tools
To achieve maximum flexibility, software can control a number of hardware options which customize the operating environment. Since software can control the operating environment, it is necessary to take precautions against run away software and its ability to change the hardware configuration unintentionally. The result is a set of registers known as the time-protected registers. These registers are writable in normal operating modes (single-chip and expanded) only during the first 64 clock cycles after reset. This protection is disabled while operating in a special mode (special bootstrap or special test).
Programming the EEPROM on the MC68HC811E2
with the M68HC11EVM Board
Special considerations must be taken when using the M68HC11EVM to program the on-chip EEPROM of the MC68HC811E2, hereafter referred to as the EVM board. The procedure to program the EEPROM is the same as that used to program the CONFIG register of the MC68HC811E2.
Programming the MC68HC711E9 Devices
with PCbug11 and the M68HC11EVBU
The PCbug11 software, needed along with the M68HC11EVBU to program MC68HC711E9 devices, is available from the download section of the Microcontroller Worldwide Web site. In this document is described how to program the MC68HC711E9 device.
Programming the BUFFALO Monitor into
If communication with the EVBU (evaluation) board cannot be established using a terminal emulation program such as Procomm or Kermit, the information in this engineering bulletin is for you. The probable reason for communication failure is that the EPROM in the MC68HC711E9 has not been programmed with the BUFFALO monitor.
Why M68HC711D3PGMR Software Does Not
Run on 486 33-MHz Computers
M68HC711D3PGMR software cannot communicate with an HC11 when it is run on a 33 Mhz or faster 486 IBM PC (personal computer) or clone. Unfortunately, the only solution is to run GLOADD3 from a slower machine.
Programming EEPROM on the MC68HC811E2
during Program Execution
The MC68HC811E2 microcontroller (MCU) has the largest EEPROM array in the MC68HC11 Family of microcontrollers. This 2-K array of EEPROM can be used for both program code and data values. In addition to the 2-K array of EEPROM, the device has 256 bytes of RAM. While some users may choose to use RAM for program variables during execution, others may want to store data and variables in the non-volatile EEPROM, so that data will still be valid after a power-off and power-on sequence.
Handling Considerations for Avoiding
Intermittent Programming and Execution Failures with MC68HC11-Windowed EPROM
If you are experiencing problems with MC68HC11-windowed EPROM devices when attempting to program them or use them in target applications, these problems may be attributable to lead alignment problems. The leads on these devices (identified with the FS package suffix) are more flexible than those on identical EPROM devices packaged in plastic-leaded chip carriers (identified with the FN package suffix). This additional flexibility may cause problems when using these parts in applications where they are handled extensively.
Replacing 68HC11KA4/KA2 MCUs with
The information in this engineering bulletin is presented to users of the 68HC11KAx Family (KA4/KA2) microcontrollers (MCUs) who are considering converting to the 68HC11KSx Family MCUs (KS2/KS8). The 68HC11KSx Family was designed to provide more ROM and RAM for KA4 users. Also, a software selectable slow mode feature to reduce power consumption has been added.
RAM Data Retention Considerations for
This engineering bulletin discusses some of the design considerations and techniques for implementing a non-battery RAM (random-access memory) data retention scheme for Motorola microcontrollers (MCU) that do not have separate RAM standby power pins, such as some of the devices in the 68HC(7)05 and 68HC11 MCU Families.
CONFIG Register Programming for
EEPROM-Based M68HC11 Microcontrollers
To guarantee proper operation of EEPROM-based M68HC11 devices, the CONFIG register must be correctly programmed. A CONFIG register verification and reprogramming routine should be included at the beginning of critical M68HC11 programs.
Migrating from the MC68HC811E2 to the
This engineering bulletin explains how existing users of the MC68HC811E2 could migrate to the MC68HC711E9. The last date that the MC68HC811E2 can be ordered from Motorola is June 30, 2001. However, beyond that date, parts may be available from Motorola distributors.
The MC68HC811E2 is a versatile part used in many different types of applications. This document addresses applications that use the part only in single-chip mode.
Migrating from the MC68HC811E2 to the
This engineering bulletin explains how existing users of the MC68HC811E2 could migrate to the MC68HC11F1. The last date that the MC68HC811E2 can be ordered from Motorola is June 30, 2001. However, beyond that date, parts may be available from Motorola distributors.
The MC68HC811E2 is a versatile part used in many different types of applications. This document addresses applications that use the part in expanded mode only.
Customers using single-chip mode should see Migrating from the MC68HC811E2 to the MC68HC711E9, Motorola document order number EB380/D.
A simpel function such as reset can cause many problems since different applications impose very different conditions on the start-up and power-down of the MCU. This document covers the main issues relating to reset and aims to lead the user of the HC05 or HC11 devices to a safe and reliable approach for the application.
Enhanced M68HC11 Bootstrap
Motorola has enhanced the capability of the Special Bootstrap Mode operation of many M68HC11 family MCUs. The enhancements are possible by the addition of larger boot ROM memories thereby expanding the functionality of the mode.The bootstrap mode listings enclosed here cover a wider range of application possibilities than before and offer enhanced or modified operation over earlier offerings. Recent enhancements include the addition of autostart facilities for PLL systems, enhanced security options, and embedding of PCbug11 talkers in the boot ROM. This engineering bulletin describes the boot ROMs of several M68HC11 MCUs.
CONFIG Register Programming for EEPROM-based M68HC11
To guarantee proper operation of EEPROM-based M68HC11 devices, the CONFIG register must be correctly programmed. A CONFIG register verification and reprogramming routinge should be included at the beginning of critical M68HC11 programs.
M68HC11 Reference Manual
MC68HC11D3 Programming Reference
MC68HC11E Programming Reference
MC68HC11F1 Programming Reference
MC68HC11KA4 Programming Reference
Master Selector Guide Cross Reference
Microcontrollers SPS Sales Guide
Software and Development Tools Sales
Automotive Selector Guide2Q, 2002